Pope Pius XII was born on March 2, 1876 in Rome, Italy as Eugenio Maria Pacelli. He became Pope on March 2, 1939 and died October 9, 1958. He was papal nuncio to Germany and then Vatican Secretary of State during the rise of Adolf Hitler to power. I consider him to be one of the principle architects (along with Pope Pius XI) of the modern totalitarian state, and of fascism.
"Not only is Rome the source and centre of Fascism, but it has been the seat of a Pope [Pius XII], who, as we shall show, has been an open ally of the Nazi-Fascist-Shinto Axis since his enthronement. He has never raised his voice against the Axis, he has never denounced the abominable aggressions, murder and cruelties they have inflicted upon mankind, and the pleas he is now making for peace and forgiveness are manifestly designed to assist the escape of these criminals."
H.G. Wells, Crux Ansata, 1943
Pius XII and the Cordell Hull Lacuna [January 13, 2012]
Pope Pius XII and the Croatian Holocaust
Pius XII: Hitler and the Vatican by Peter Godman notes and commentary
Pius XII: Hitler's Pope by John Cornwell notes and commentary
Israel, Pope Pius XII, and the Holocaust [October 29, 2008]